A game changing CLEAN and EFFECTIVE technology that
converts fossil fuel and/or renewable energy into work
or heat and electricity,
and transforms waste heat into electricity or work

EHFE technology

From houseHold to enterprise
From car to tanker

4 key patents and patent pendings

Prototype video
Prototype animation
As green as a gas oven you cook on

35 - 70%
More efficient than ICE*
*ICE - Internal Combustion Engine
10 - 25 %
ORC* efficiency increase
*ORC - Organic Rankine Cycle
Simpler and cheaper than modern extremely advanced ICEs
Pic. 1
EHFE technology application area

With EHFE technology no feed pumps are needed, hence no power consumption to drive the same. Our technology creates conditions for heat transfer efficiency rise and is applicable in ORC steam power plants as well as in small scale power generation (e.g. in separate houses, residential buildings, district power generation systems, enterprises on-site power generation, etc.).

Picture 1 illustrates "the classical" concept of well-known steam power plants, the colors on the chart show working fluid temperature change. This scheme is a closed loop, where the working fluid consumption as a vapor is compensated by the working liquid supplied by the feed pump. The pump, while pumping condensate, overcomes operating pressure, over few hundred atm. It is a huge pressure, and to overcome it, sophisticated multi-circuit feed pumps (schemes) are often used. Most important, the power, consumed to drive these pumps, is up to 10% of the total generation (even up to 20% in certain cases) and depends not only on the result of normal use and aging or feed pump type, but also on the working fluid type. For example, in recent years a low-boiling working fluid is widely used to implement the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles), where generation of 1 kW of power requires much more working fluid flow in comparison with "water" Rankine cycle, increasing dramatically power consumption to drive feed pumps.
Pic. 2
EHFE technology application area

Picture 2 illustrates one of the Stirling engine's "classical" schemes. It is well known that steam engine, working on Stirling cycle with an external heat supply, is much more environmentally friendly, compared to internal combustion engines. Moreover, Stirling engines have potential efficiency, comparable only with maximum efficiency of the Carnot cycle. In reality, we are struggling to achieve this efficiency due to a number of technological reasons, related to the structural materials thermal stability, little heat transfer efficiency during multiple (dozens of times per second) working fluid relocations from engine's "cold" to "hot" area, as well as due to hydraulic losses and the related difficulty of engine sealing while operating at high fluid working bodies (helium, hydrogen), etc.

EHFE technology not only solves these problems, but also offers new alternatives for engines operation on thermodynamic cycles, such as Stirling cycle. It became possible to approach top efficiency and environmental performance using simple, reliable and cost-effective engine.
Pic. 3
Description of EHFE technology

Picture 3 shows a schematic diagram of a steam plant with working fluid fragmentation (division) and periodic sealing in chambers. This example illustrates one of the EHFE technology application areas and demonstrates the principle of the working fluid pump-free circulation through temporary connection of cameras and difference between the vapor and liquid working fluid phases densities due to the dependence between boiling temperature and the pressure, according to the individual "saturation lines" for different operating fluids. This simple and reliable technical solution makes it possible not only implementing closed circuit pump free steam power plant, but also using working fluid, fragmented (divided) in chambers, to be heated by any heating medium using countercurrent heat exchanger scheme.

We already patented this decision at the basic level. In order to commercialize part of our developments we have partnered with Termokraft, a technology driven company, specializing in heating equipment (boilers) production. Termokraft design department is creating the original concept of the low-to-medium capacity heat and power generating installation, burning natural gas or pellet fuel, with a separate coolant circuit between combustion products and working fluid. A challenging design task is to precisely investigate and create tools for replacement of the liquid phase by the vapor phase when working fluid flows from the "upper" to the "lower" chamber with simultaneous heat exchange through the wall of the steam pipe or in case of direct flow, without steam line between these phases.

We also cooperate with the Siberian Federal University (SFU) scientists, who are extremely enthusiastic about our activities, and we are jointly preparing for scientific survey, research and technological development (R & D).

Preliminary calculations, describing the above process, have been already made in cooperation with the SFU scientists.

The technology developed is simpler and more reliable than the existing ones as no feed pumps are used and piston converter requires no lubrication. It may be applicable in small-to-mid scale power generation, whether it is a separate house, enterprise on-site generation or small isolated grid.
Pic. 4
Description of EHFE technology

Picture 4 represents a schematic diagram of a steam installation demonstrating another example of EHFE technology. Just like in the scheme, described above (Picture 3), the principle of pump-free working fluid circulating and its heating by intermittent fragmentation of the working fluid in the radial chambers is also implemented. The working fluid is not replaced when it is heated in the radial chambers. The working fluid is located in the same cell from the moment it is filled in the form of condensate and until it goes out as vapor. The chambers are filled in and emptied by switching the working fluid supply and discharge channels, the flow of the heating medium is also redirected, given chambers' warmup, as in countercurrent heat exchanger. In the pilot plant, developed by our team, a distributor unit is used to switch heating medium flows, as well as supply and discharge working fluid. Moreover, discharge working fluid (intra-cyclic recuperation) is used as the flow of the heating medium inn this pilot plant. In contrast to the process, described above (Picture 3), there are absolutely no permanent losses, associated with the working fluid movement between the chambers, in the process, depicted in Picture 4. The power, consumed for distributor rotation, is very small and initially estimated to be up to 1% of the total generation. A lot of work has already been done and significant amount is in progress. Intensive patenting activities are being carried out. Apart from intra-cyclic recovery scheme, an isothermal reciprocating converter is used in our pilot plant. We continue research activities using our pilot plant along with technology partners and are preparing for further R&D efforts together with SFU scientists. Scientific opinion on the prospects of further development was obtained. We performed basic calculations, demonstrating plant efficiency, using specific capacity of about 37% of the ideal cycle efficiency factor, applying pentane as working fluid at maximum temperature of 240 °C. 240 °C is far from the temperature limit, the plant materials allow to increase temperature at least two-fold, hence efficiency and power density may be increased. Important feature of the proposed scheme is ability to work on supercritical parameters for working fluids with phase change and gaseous working medium as there is no need to maintain difference between vapor density and working fluid liquid phase density.

Important part of EHFE technology is flow distribution in the above described manner and it is especially promising, because it allows achieving maximum efficiency with general simplicity of the engine or steam power plant design.

Pic. 5
The Company technology, optimally compatible with EHFE technology
Various cycles with internal recuperation optimally fit the above described schemes of steam power plants and engines employing EHFE technology to heat fragmented working body through countercurrent heat exchanger. Effective internal cycle's recovery or recuperation, such as Stirling regenerative cycle, allows to approach the maximum possible efficiency for heat engines. Working fluid regenerative cooling and heating processes are optimally correlated with isothermal compression and expansion processes in Stirling cycle. It is known, that the temperature preservation when heat is supplied and especially temperature rise during the working fluid expansion, gives the largest value of the produced work in relation to the weight of the consumed working fluid. This makes combination of the effective isothermal converter along with EHFE technology especially promising.

Pic. 5.1
We developed high-quality isothermal converter with an increased heating surface. This technology is extremely valuable and we already filed patent applications and made a pilot plant. We agreed with SFU to carry out R&D activities with preparation of digital simulation software. Preliminary estimations show a dozen times improved heat transfer performance for working fluids with phase change and gaseous working mediums.

Our converter allows to decrease a heater's temperature having specific capacity value, comparable to the classical Stirling engines, hence material requirements and costs are reduced while service life is extended. The converter allows using heavy working bodies with low fluidity, thereby reducing the requirements for steam density and for the plant in general.

Isothermal converter scheme enables achieving highly efficient compression of any working fluid, whether such converter is a part of an engine (cold cylinder Stirling engine) or a simple compressor.

Pic. 6
Example of EHFE technology in an engine with working fluid phase change

Picture 6 demonstrates an ideal thermodynamic cycle in the following coordinate representation: the pressure (P) and volume (V) for a steam power plant with EHFE technology applied and adiabatic converter (turbine, the cylinder-piston group without heat supply).

This cycle, save the process 4-1, is similar to the well-known Rankine cycle. The process 4-1 is different as increase in pressure up to the operating value at constant volume in case of the Rankine cycle is achieved by the feed pump, but in our case it is achieved by the working fluid heating in the chamber with constant volume. All other processes are similar: 1-2 - boiling / evaporation; 2-3 - adiabatic expansion of the working fluid in the converter; 3-4 - condensation.

Pic. 7
Picture 7 demonstrates an ideal thermodynamic cycle in the following coordinate representation: the pressure (P) and volume (V) for a steam power plant with EHFE technology applied along with additional technology, developed by our company - an isothermal converter (cylinder-piston group with heat supply). This cycle is unique, and just like in previous case, during process 5-1 the working fluid pressure is risen at a constant volume of the chamber due to its heating. The process 1-2 is the process of boiling and evaporation. The process 2-3 is an isothermal, or approximately isothermal, working fluid expansion. The process 3-4 is a regenerative cooling of exhausted working fluid with heat transfer from this process to the process 5-1. Condensation takes place during process 4-5.

SFU scientists were calculating the aforementioned processes, using the Coolprop http://www.coolprop.org function (link). Calculations were made for pentane and they show up to 30% increase of the produced work in case of working fluid isothermal or "excess" isothermal expansion. It also shows up to 20% increase in the produced work as no power is consumed for feed pumps rotation, this value is especially relative to the case of ORC plant using low-boiling working fluids.
Рic. 8
Example of EHFE technology implementation in an engine using gaseous medium.

Picture 8 demonstrates: A) the process of the working body expansion in the chamber 3 and above-the-piston space with simultaneous compression process in sub-piston space and chamber 1.

In cycle position 1- the piston is close to the heater and the above-the-piston space volume is close to minimum, inlet distributor channel is opened.
In cycle position 2 - the piston is in an intermediate position, the inlet closure takes place (this position is given just as an example, however there may be no inlet closure at this stage).
In cycle position 3 - the piston is removed from the heater, the space volume above the piston is close to maximum; if there is no position 2, the inlet closure takes place.
In cycle position 4-5 – compression process takes place simultaneously with the expansion process.

Picture 8 demonstrates: B) working fluid recuperation processes in chamber 2. Simultaneous gaseous working medium heating in chamber 2 and exhausted gaseous working medium takes place.

In cycle position 3 - the piston goes out from the heater, the space volume above the piston is close to maximum, the discharge outlet and compression channel open, and the recuperative heat exchanger in chamber 2 is connected via those channels.
In cycle position 4 - the piston is close to the heater and above-the-piston space volume is close to minimum, the gaseous working medium has moved through the chamber 2 recuperative heat exchanger from the above-the-piston space to the sub-piston space.
In cycle position 5-1, the gaseous working medium is heated in chamber 2 simultaneously with gaseous working medium cooling when it passes between the positions 3-4.

In the above example, the cycle may approach the top of Stirling and Carnot cycles ideal efficiency. The cycle's features are simultaneous processes of expansion and compression, as well as simultaneous heating and cooling regenerative processes. This became possible due to EHFE technology, as it involves different fragments of the working medium, hence heat transfer efficiency is may be further increased by adding the chambers and their capacity.

EHFE technology second Prototype pilot installation - with InCycle Recuperation and Isothermal converter
Isothermal converter – a part of EHFE technology Prototype pilot installation
Konstantin Finnikov

Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor, Thermal Physics Department, Siberian Federal University.


"This technology will allow to get bigger conversion efficiency coefficient values than in the steam-power cycle; gas temperature constancy during gas expansion and compression increases efficiency up to the values close to the efficiency coefficient of the Carnot cycle in the Stirling cycle engines"

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Project team key members
Mikhail Nadtochey
Inventor, entrepreneur and project manager
Alexander Zaycev
Inventor and developer - an independent participant in the project
Konstantin Finnikov
Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, thermophysicist, advisor
Igor Gorbov
Programmer and electronic engineer
Vitaly Klimov
Cooperation and Development
At the beginning we were developing our startup with an emphasis on a high quality intellectual property, during 2014-2016 we were mainly reflecting and refining the principle of fragmentation and recuperation and protecting intellectual property (two key patent applications were filed in 2014 and two other applications filed in 2015 and 2016 respectively).

As a result of our team inventive enthusiasm coupled with scientific research we are now capable to offer unique technological solutions applicable in small-to-medium power plants, various vehicles engines and compressor equipment. We are ready for cooperation and comprehensive examinations. Being aware of our developments potential and technological simplicity we are keen to manufacture competitive industrial samples and strengthen already available intellectual property. To achieve these goals joint efforts of engineers, scientists, advanced technological and financial partners, and patents experts are needed.

Our developments may take significant share on the global small and distributed power generation, compressors, large marine/land vehicles engines, e-vehicles charging stations markets. EHFE technology is beneficial for the whole of mankind in terms of environment protection, rational use of fossil fuels, increased utilization of geothermal energy sources, solar irradiation and waste heat, generated in course of industrial production.

Several years of hard work are back, few test installations were made during that period, a set of scientific research and development programs have been performed and are in progress along with Siberian Federal University scientists, based in Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk. Theoretical basis along with design and calculation solutions have been created.

We are trying to promote our project globally by participating in startup events, startup accelerator programs, etc. We are keen to get deeply involved in global startup ecosystem and get to know our peers, business angels, venture investors and anyone interested in the fields we are working in. Do get in touch with us at the email ID provided here and we are always open to meet in person!

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